Information is gotten into the brains through the process of encoding. And once we receive sensory information from environment the brain code it. What are the effective ways to ensure that important memories are well encoded?
Considering the three type of encoding which include: Semantic encoding which is of words and their literally meaning; Visual encoding which is of image and; Acoustic encoding which is through sound the words make. Coming back to developing good memory, note words that are semantically encoded are better remember than those encoded visually and acoustically. This references are for better memory for information that relates to enhancing good memory functions in children.
Simply mean the faculty of the brain by which information is encoded (The process often known as learning), stored and retrieved when needed. The memory is vital and linked to experiences in relation to limbic system, capacity of retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future occurrence or action.
Often memory as understood is an information processing system with explicit and implicit functions made up of sensory processor related to neuron; in short-term called working memory and in long-term memory it is storage. Fact remains that information is likely to pass through three stages in order for it to be stored in long time memory the stages include sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory
A good memory is simply the one that has the capacity to register and retain the effect of experiences, movements and ideas and at the same time has the power to recall easily the images, ideas, movements and the effects of experiences that had been registered or stored. There for if we could not remember past events that means we could not learn or develop language, relationships or personal identity.
Memory has three basic function if more than this meaning all narrow down to this stated three basic functions:
Encoding meaning the act of getting information into our memory system by means of automatic or effortful processing.
Storing: The act of retaining of the encoded information
Retrieving: in simple note the recalling, retrieval or getting the information out of memory and back into awareness or use-age.
Working memory in children
Working memory is a cognitive system limited in capacity, that is responsible for temporarily holding of information available for processing. It is important for reasoning and the guidance of decision-making and behavior.
In children it will help learning and performing of basic tasks, developing literacy skills such as reading and writing. The working memory simply the short-term memory takes information from sensory memory and sometime links that memory to something already in long-term memory.
Developing good memory and children memory functions
Memory is a fundamental tool
It play a vital role in emotional, social and cognitive functioning. It form the basis of our sense of self guiding our thoughts and decision. It also influence our emotional reactions and allow us to learn. It is very central to cognitive and cognition development. Take for instance after working hard to encode and store important information for let say an up coming exams, it is then required to get the information back when you need it from where it has been stored meaning “retrieving” and is vital to everyday functioning. Therefore in 3 ways or more can such information be retrieved from the long-term memory storage and this include: Recall, Recognition and Re-learning.
In many ways that construct of memory can be derived, take into consideration working memory that which allow maintaining representations and long-term memory that which allow us to remember events over a life time period. The long term memory can be of two type; Non declarative (implicit) this are in accessible to conscious awareness and it include skills learning, to be candid it is apparent and virtually from birth. The declarative (explicit) this require consciousness remembering and include recognition and remembering of names, object, events etc.
Teacher role in developing memory function
To assist children to develop memory function, The teacher play a vital role, he need to understand critically and over time should watch the time the child has optimum active desire to register information and experiences or information.
In addition the child should be made to exert all efforts at registering and retaining facts, i.e. during a lesson in reading the child is not only to listen to the teacher reading but the child himself is to make all effort to read along side. The child measures, weighs, estimate length and height during arithmetic lesson in real-time practical activities and under close monitoring to assure that individual child register what is learnt.
Children role in developing memory function
In actual fact children are always ready to register and retain in their memory those experiences that interest them. Hence to aid children memory teacher should look for children’s interests; these interests may concern the child’s future, his well-being or any of his needs. While such interests are sought after, the teacher should present experiences in such an interesting way that at the end the child will be prepared to register and retain them in his memory since it interest him. Children should be given attention to assist their curiosity.
Memory is not a reservoir for simply storage of knowledge. Exercising of brain memory is required to make it functional. Children learning the tables of volume and weights should carry out practical weighing of and object on weighing scale and measure of buckets of different kinds liquids should be done to illustrate role of specific gravity. Any new words in English that is learnt needs to be used often in sentences. This will aids good memory functions in addition, drills taken regularly enhance memory functionality.
The ability and capacity to produce image, ideas and sensation in the mind without any immediate input of senses. This will help makes knowledge applicable in solving problems and is fundamental to integrating experience and learning processes. Imagination in other words is derived from Latin word imago meaning image or picture.
Role of imagination power
The power of the child to make use of past experience to shape the future conduct is linked to imagination. As it is, what could make individual think so differently is imagination. Imagination is a very strong force in education for if all learning should be of only things that one can see or touch or feel, the education of the individual would be so limited. Imagination comes into play in the early stages of the child’s education even before school. Take for example, the child who wants to feel he is a bus driver and has no real bus at his command, he makes one of the materials he can find and demonstrate a likely event of driving. Another example is a child who display imagination can put footstool on the top of a chair to get his toy on top of a wardrobe and so reaches for his toy more quickly why the other fruitlessly tries to reach it.
Imaginative power of children
Imaginative as a powerful tool that relay having or showing creativity or inventiveness. It allows children to be curious and creative in many ways which has never been considered before and in children it comes naturally. But in today where our society is currently dependent on technology, access to digital tools is making imaginative power in children coming in another ways and trend, people are coming up with idea that technology is decreasing the children imaginative power among all age group. I tells is an understatement because they will later find out that it is not so. Imagination comes natural as mental ability God giving power, and it work-ability to mentally picture an idea with inner eye and then lead it to creative thinking. Definitely some children will be more imaginative than the other as they will all have different level of access to unlimited creative freedom as each of them formulate new ideas.
Teaching to enhance children imaginative power
Imagination helps children along way to focus and it makes them to use their imagination and imagery. For example, in geography, history and other content lessons, proper use of questions by the teacher will aids the functionality of imagination and thus will aids good memory. Since imagination is a vehicle that grow a creativity, focus and attention to innovate or invent, just by imagining it will enhance higher learning reasoning faculty that in turn can boost the brain functionality.
In process of learning new experiences it needs to be associated directly with other alike experiences with which the children have been familiar. For instance, the present happenings in the country are direct results of history and hence current events have been made spring boards for the study of history. Other example is the presence of hallow round the moon or the sun may be the beginning of the study of rainbow in geography, colors in art and breaking bending and reflection and refraction of light in science in liken referral manner creating this kind of link will go along way to assist the child to have critical reasoning. Therefore imaginative children will learn to be good problem solver often want to create new things, come up with ideas and can work on their own to achieve a goal.
Role of memory and imagination in education
Memory and imagination in education
Under suitable conditions, the child register experiences, ideas, facts and retain these in his memory. He is then able to recall these experiences or ideas and facts when they are needed. The power to retain and recall such experiences or idea is very important in education for without the retention and recall of such experiences, the discovery and use and the ultimate development of man to a higher plane of civilization would be impossible. With a good memory, the child recalls past experiences, discover the truth, associates experiences and he combines knowledge with others to form new knowledge.
Use of strategic teaching method to stimulate memory and imaginative power
In the process of learning, the child learns what he desires what interests him and when he is mature for such learning. Such is the per-requisite for good memory that the teacher needs to take these into consideration. More than this the child needs to make an effort to find knowledge to be retained and not for him to wait for knowledge to come to him i.e. he is to be productively active in the task of seeking knowledge and to aid is memory, the child should be made to use all his senses.
The teacher has to provide experiences that provide imaginative understanding or appreciation. Children should be made to contrast and compare and in the end, they should be made to express the result of their imagination in writing and drawing, hand work, singing, dancing and dramatization. The practical work should call for the imagination of the child, they can design wearing apparel, they can improve the stage etc. Imagination will then be the inspiration for action.
How teaching method may stimulate them.
Making of an effective teaching to stimulate memory,
A teacher needs to make his lessons interesting and real. The child should be made to know the purpose and end of any abstract things he is to learn. The child should be made to learn experience objectively and subjectively.
The teacher should watch out for the time the child is ready to learn to introduce experience and when this will run counter to his prepared scheme, he should create a situation under which the child would develop interest making the environment conducive to learn.
The teacher should simulate memory by the use of audio-visual media while the teacher should strive to provide a medium for the utilization of the new knowledge learnt to be implemented so that the pupil might recall easily.
Helping kids and teens to remember what is learnt
To aid memory, the teacher should make efforts to present what is to be learnt in wholes and the children need learn in wholes. In case of poetry offers a good example here, where poetry is learnt in halves, it makes little or no meaning; nor would the children be able to appreciate to the full the thought conveyed by the poem.
The use of carefully prepared questions would stimulate the child’s imagination. This gives the child opportunity for recalling accurately those past experiences which had interested him or which he had noticed.
The sentences of the children could be called up to action to stimulate the imagination of children. Take for instance teaching on slave, a drama can be use to illustrate such teaching in other words the treatment of the slave scene would always make them picture what life would look like in a concentration camp, and as our child grow and learn to read and gains more freedom of action, his experience are proportionately more numerous and he will be more able to shape his future conduct on his past experience and the stuff out of which he makes his vision will be more widened.
Knowledge to be retained and recalled must be properly understood. Formulae needs to be preceded by practical demonstration of rules involved, after the demonstration practice should follow and where possible the child should be lead to discover the formulae to fasten their understanding.
The teacher should appeal to at least two of the senses of the children. The use of maps, models by children in geography and history lessons, the value of maps and photographs, the audio-visual devices in any lesson cannot be overestimated. The child should be made to hear, touch, see, feel and where possible taste the experience to be learnt. He will then be able to retain the effect of such experience and recall them when he required.
To be able to make use of past experience, the past should be one that had been enjoyed. It is such pleasant memories that last longest and it is upon this that new superstructure of experience can be built. And with the past experiences, the teacher should try to associate new experiences. Take for example a child who has not had a journey in a ship could not be required to write a good essay on traveling on the sea.
Children role in developing imaginative power
Since memory is not a box where knowledge can be neatly packed and brought out intact when needed, knowledge needs to be utilized. Children learning the tables of weights and measure or tables of length should do actual weighing of a sample object, length of school farm, crops or help measure out the site of new class room. Any new works in English that is learnt needs to be used often in sentences. This aids good memory in addition, drills taken regularly aid memory.
Children should be made to do constructive practical work where children handle flowers dissecting and inspect where they model reliefs or draw other maps. Other example is where children dramatize a story or recite a pieces of poetry they do not tend to forget their experiences.
The value of speed and accuracy in developing good memory cannot be over estimated. Hence one of the great needs of the learner is such help in the learning process as will enable him to recall at need the relevant materials he had retained with speed and accuracy
How To help Children Remember What They Are taught through imaginative power
To remember an experience depends to some extent on the way the experience is learnt and hence the first job of the teacher in helping the child to remember what he has learnt is to impart such knowledge in a way the child would retain sufficient of it. This will consist:
Enlisting the interest of the child in the lesson take for instance in a geography lesson the value of geography to himself and the community in which he lives, say in the supply and distribution of food, the growing of food and weather will make of the heated water, moisture laden air, the vapors, the condensation all must be observed accurately and recall accurately.
Careful questioning will help the recall of what is learnt. Reverence need to be made to the formation of rainfall when ever fact about weather and climate are being learnt. If the mind is to function easily and mechanically when it is necessary to recall some past experience the actual memorizing of the fact to be learnt are understood and form part of an associated system of active ideas.
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